What is industrial waste disposal?sposal?
- what is waste?
According to the notification of the Ministry of the Environment (formerly the Ministry of Health and Welfare), waste is interpreted as follows:
Waste is any unnecessary material after the possessor has used the material or that the possessor cannot sell to others at cost. Whether a material is waste or not should be comprehensively judged considering the possessor intention, its property, etc., and cannot be objectively regarded as waste at the time when it is discharged.
According to the Law Concerning Waste Disposal and Scavenging (Waste Disposal Law), waste is defined as "garbage, bulky waste, cinders, sludge, excreta, waste oil, waste acid, waste alkali, animal corpses and other filth or useless things all of which are liquid or solid. Radioactive materials and matter polluted by radiation are excluded." Waste is broadly classified into "industrial waste" and "general waste."
- what is industrial waste?
Industrial waste is waste, stipulated by the government ordinance, that is generated mainly by business activities. Industrial waste is classified as industrial waste generated from certain business activities, specially controlled industrial waste, and specified hazardous industrial waste. (The classification is as shown in the table below.)
Differences between general waste and industrial waste
The responsibility for disposal of general waste discharged from households lies with municipalities, while the responsibility for disposal of industrial waste lies with the companies generating waste.
Industrial waste is not permitted to be treated or disposed of at municipal' general wastes treatment facilities, so it must be outsourced to licensed industrial waste disposal companies.
Type Specific description Wood chips, waste paper, fiber waste Waste generated from building, demolition, etc., in the construction industry Waste acid, waste alkali Liquid used in various industrial manufacturing processes
Waste sulfuric acid, waste hydrochloric acid, coal waste liquid, ammonia waste liquid, photograph developing waste liquid, caustic soda waste liquid, etc.
Waste oil Mineral oil, animal and plant oil, lubricating oil, insulating oil, detergent oil, cutting oil, solvent, tar pitch, etc.
Table: Types of industrial waste and examples (excerpt)
Problems related to industrial waste have a social background as described below.
|ISO 14000||International Organization for Standardization (ISO) conducts various international standardization activities. As part of the activities, the ISO 14000 series covers environment management standards.|
|Intermediate processing||Processing of waste such as incineration, dehydration and crushing except final disposal (landfill)|
|Proper processing||Proper handling of waste, with consideration given to environmental preservation, through sorting of waste, conversion of hazardous substances to be recycled into harmless matter, etc.|
|Manifest||Form in which necessary information is filled out when disposal of industrial waste is consigned and a system for checking the flow of disposal.
After disposal, the consignor receives the manifest describing the completion of disposal from the disposal company and confirms that the waste was treated according to the content of the consignment. With this, environmental pollution due to improper treatment and illegal dumping, which is a social problem, can be prevented.
* This is a system for managing appropriate treatment or disposal.
|RPF||Abbreviation of Refuse Paper & Plastic Fuel. RPF is a high-calorie sold fuel produced from waste paper, wood chips, and plastics among industrial waste that is difficult to be reused as it is.|
(Melting recycling sand)
|Molten slag produced by melting industrial waste incineration ash and fly ash at 1,400°C.
It can be used as a substitute for sand or extender material in civil engineering/construction.
* In 2007, Melissa was registered as a recycled product promoted by Hiroshima Prefecture.
* Melissa is the trade name of the product manufactured by Tsuneishi Kamtecs Corporation.
|3R||Abbreviation of Reduce (reducing waste), Reuse (reusing waste) and Recycle (recycling waste)|
|Incineration ash||Cinder that remains after waste is incinerated|
|Soot and dust||Fine particles of soot, etc., contained in contaminated air, etc.|
|Slag||Glassy matter generated from metal refinement or melting of waste incineration ash|
|Roadbed material||Stones used in construction of roads|